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A new era for corporate taxation in the EU enters into force today

01 January 2024
Knowledge Base

Ground-breaking new EU rules come into effect today introducing a minimum rate of effective taxation of 15% for multinational companies active in EU Member States. The framework will bring greater fairness and stability to the tax landscape in the EU and globally, while making it more modern and better adapted to today’s globalised, digital world. The entry into force of the minimum effective taxation rules, unanimously agreed by Member States in 2022, formalises the EU’s implementation of the so-called ‘Pillar 2′ rules agreed as part of the global deal on international tax reform in 2021.
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Rising interest rate environment led to a decline in non-bank financial intermediation in 2022

29 December 2023
Knowledge Base

The Financial Stability Board (FSB) has published the Global Monitoring Report on Non-Bank Financial Intermediation 2023. The report presents the FSB’s annual monitoring exercise assessing global trends and vulnerabilities in non-bank financial intermediation (NBFI). The report mainly covers developments in 2022, when most economies experienced a rising interest rate environment in response to inflationary pressures. It describes broad trends in financial intermediation across 29 jurisdictions that account for around 85% of global GDP, before narrowing its focus to the subset of NBFI activities that may be more likely to give rise to vulnerabilities. This year’s exercise includes data enhancements on interconnectedness, sources of funding, and vulnerability metrics. Continue reading…

The inflation outlook and monetary policy in the euro area

12 October 2023
Knowledge Base

Luis de Guindos

I will start by giving you an overview of the economic outlook for the euro area before going on to look at how the ECB has adjusted its monetary policy to this outlook. I will then discuss in more detail the transmission of our monetary policy in the current environment and the sources of uncertainty that appear particularly relevant at this stage. Continue reading…

Out of control national debt in the United States hangs over the market like a sword of Damocles

20 September 2023
Knowledge Base

by Michel Klompmaker

We recently spoke with Twan Houben about the possible impact of the enormously increased national debt in the United States. Twan Houben is concerned with crisis management, hence his special interest in the phenomenon of national debt on the other side of the Ocean. Then what’s going on? According to Marketwatch, the national debt there currently amounts to 33 trillion US dollars. To put that number into perspective, three years ago that was 23 trillion US dollars. It is not rocket science to calculate that with the increased interest rates in the last period, serious problems can arise if new loans have to be taken out to finance the national debt. But what are the consequences in Europe? Continue reading…

CPMI and IOSCO report highlights the need for central counterparties to have adequate resources to address non-default losses

30 August 2023
Knowledge Base

The Bank for International Settlements’ Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures (CPMI) and the International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) have on 23 August published a Report on current central counterparty practices to address non-default losses highlighting the need for CCPs to have adequate resources and appropriate tools to address NDLs. CCPs have become increasingly important to the financial system for managing counterparty risk, especially since the introduction of the clearing obligation for standardised OTC derivatives following the 2007–09 global financial crisis. Continue reading…

Final Reflections on the LIBOR Transition

07 August 2023
Knowledge Base

In 2013, the Financial Stability Board (FSB) established the Official Sector Steering Group (OSSG) with the view of promoting the effective collaboration of the global official sector towards the end goal of successful transition to robust benchmarks, including the transition away from LIBOR. After a decade of preparation, the LIBOR transition has entered its final stage. The end of June 2023 marked the final major milestone in the LIBOR transition with the end of the remaining USD LIBOR panel. Only three of the US dollar LIBOR settings will continue in a synthetic form after June 2023 and are intended to cease at end-September 2024. In addition, reform of other interest rate benchmarks and related transition efforts have either been completed or near their planned, final conclusion. Continue reading…

Christine Lagarde about inflation

21 June 2023
Knowledge Base

Inflation has been coming down, with the latest data showing a broad-based decline. But it is still projected to remain too high for too long. In our latest projections, Eurosystem staff expect headline inflation to average 5.4% in 2023, 3.0% in 2024 and 2.2% in 2025. Staff have also revised up their projections for core inflation, which they now see reaching 5.1% in 2023, before it declines to 3.0% in 2024 and 2.3% in 2025. This revision is due to past upward surprises in inflation and the implications of the robust labour market for the speed of disinflation. Specifically, we expect both wages and employment to continue growing strongly over the projection horizon, while output growth will be weaker this year and next. In this context, labour productivity growth will be lower and rising unit labour costs are likely to put upward pressure on inflation. Continue reading…

Elena Pykhova

Elena Pykhova

Elena Pykhova is a thought leader, influencer and founder of a think tank, Best Practice Operational Risk Forum.

EBA Risk Dashboard Q4 2022: Operational risk remains a key concern

17 April 2023
Knowledge Base

Quarterly European Banking Authority (EBA) risk dashboards highlight main vulnerabilities in the EU banking sector and serve as an extremely useful source of benchmarking information. A recently published report1 is of particular interest, as Q4 2022 data is supplemented by latest analysis of the confidence crisis involving Silicon Valley Bank and Credit Suisse. The report notes a sharp increase in financial market volatility in early March; and a somewhat uncertain macroeconomic outlook. Despite the turmoil, it acknowledges that bank’s share prices and credit spreads have recovered, and overall EU/EEA banks remain in strong financial position with sufficient capital and liquidity ratios. This is supported by a heatmap of risk indicator trends overtime containing no ‘RED’ indicators; measures are predominantly GREEN with 3 out of 10 trending AMBER. Continue reading…

Commission proposes more transparency and less red tape for companies to improve business environment in the EU

10 April 2023
Knowledge Base

On 29 March, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Directive making it easier for companies to expand the use of digital tools and processes in EU company law. The proposal aims to facilitate cross-border companies’ operations and to increase business transparency and trust by making more information about companies publicly available at EU level. It will also cut red tape for cross-border businesses, saving around €‎437 million of administrative burden per year, thanks to an EU Company Certificate or the application of the “once-only principle”. The proposal will contribute to further digitalisation of the single market and help companies, in particular, small and medium-sized ones to do business in the EU. Continue reading…

What are currency swap lines?

31 March 2023
Knowledge Base

A currency swap line is an agreement between two central banks to exchange currencies. This allows a central bank to obtain foreign currency liquidity from the central bank that issues it – usually because they need to provide this to domestic commercial banks. For example, the swap line with the US Federal Reserve System enables the ECB and all the national central banks in the euro area (Eurosystem) to receive US dollars from the Fed in exchange for an equivalent amount of euro provided to the Federal Reserve. These agreements have been part of central banks’ set of monetary policy instruments for decades.

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